Article 5


Since the first description of autistic tendencies in the early 1800s, the definition and diagnostic criteria for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have changed dramatically (Cook & Willmerdinger, 2015). Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental syndrome characterised by social reciprocity and communication deficits, as well as unusual restricted, repetitive behaviours (Lord et al., 2000). The dominant theories on autism adopted a psychogenic approach in the early 1900s, which holds that autism is caused by emotional or psychological factors rather than biological or physical ones (Cook & Willmerdinger, 2015). Some of this was based on current Freudian psychoanalytic theories. These psychogenic explanations for autism were widely accepted in the medical community and persisted due to a lack of medical research into the cause of this particular disorder (Cook & Willmerdinger, 2015). Autism Spectrum Disorder is now classified into two subtypes: restricted and/or repetitive behaviours, and impaired social communication and/or interaction (Cook & Willmerdinger, 2015). As of 2014, one in every 68 children had autism, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 2014).

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Article 4

Autism Spectrum Disorder and its Impact on Children

The ephemeral nature of glory and its inherent vulnerability to the wrath of time is a universal theme that pervades all aspects of history and civilisation. Ultimate truth transcends temporal boundaries and can only be perceived over time, accompanied by an ironic deconstruction of political grandeur. The failure to internalise the concept of political sovereignty's impermanence is aptly intertwined with an ironic disregard for impending annihilation in "Ozymandias." Arrogance is then portrayed as an ignorant way of reasoning, fueling a false sense of accomplishment that breeds hatred and antagonism, with brutal leaders ultimately condemned for their actions. Following recent historical and political events, there are only parallels to be drawn between Ozymandias' sense of entitlement and modern ruthless examples of power. Revisiting the poem and interpreting it through a modern lens can serve as a reminder of how fragile things are. As a result, "Ozymandias" becomes a breeding ground for the comforting idealistic notion that the current period of oppression will inevitably be overturned by a power ensuring bliss and respect for all.

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Article 3


Arrogance as a portrait. [Etching

Humility in leadership, defined as the ability to act with increased self-awareness, demonstrate emotional intelligence, and accept constructive criticism, has been shown to be a key leadership trait that can easily drive a positive outcome and long-term impact, as it has been linked to increased leadership competence (Yang et al., 2019). To put it another way, humble leaders outperform conceited ones. According to empirical findings, arrogance is inversely proportional to cognitive abilities and self-esteem (Bauer et al., 2008; Johnson et al., 2010). As a result, "engaging in socially demeaning and domineering behaviours may be defensive compensation for (potentially accurate) perceptions of personal inadequacies, as arrogant leaders tend to make unfavourable assessments of their ability" (Silverman, 2012, p. 24). Interestingly, Yang et al. (2019) provide evidence in their meta-analysis that "when the leader perceives that his/her followers possess capabilities of a high order, the leader would be more likely to express humility" (p. 8). Consider the practises of Jesus Christ, Buddha, and Mahatma Gandhi, all of whom embraced fairness and modesty and are still widely regarded as epitomes of humility.

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Article 2


Analogy in the Present

The message of the sonnet, in contrast to the ephemeral nature of political power, is timeless, transcending centuries and tragically becoming relevant to contemporary political discourses. The inscription on the forgotten crumbling statue represents a "achievement to bind up all these aspects of fragmentation and dislocation and give the poem, an eerily contemporary message about power, history, and civilization" (Walker, 2007, p. 7). Despite resonating with the modern political climate, the poem's moral does not appear to be heard by modern political leaders, who continue to shamelessly commit atrocities in pursuit of their imperialistic ambitions.Recent historical figures such as despotic WWII figures Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini, the most recent former US President Donald Trump, and current Russian President Vladimir Putin are just a few examples of modern Ozymandias. individuals attempt to project a persona of omnipotence and invincibility" (Silverman et al., 2012, p. 22) and that "arrogance is engaging in behaviors intended to exaggerate a person's sense of superiority by disparaging others" (Johnson et al., 2010 ),it is no surprise that many leaders act arrogantly.

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Article 1

Napoleon in front of the Sphinx.

Although the poem specifically exposes the futility of Ozymandias' tyranny, it transcends its subject matter, expressing a general aversion and criticism of all forms of absolutism. Shelley was a rebel, and his revolutionary ideology was heavily influenced by the turbulent social climate of his time. The French Revolution and Napoleon's oppressive persona sparked a questioning of the aristocracy, allowing an emphasis on the transient nature of tyrannical institutions. Surprisingly, despite being a 14-line sonnet, the poem deviates from standard sonnet convention in both form and rhyme scheme. Shelley's desire to vehemently challenge the established norm, both political and poetic, is reflected in this poetic strategy (Spacey, 2022).

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